Ways to embed information in object-code for the Intel x86
Instruction reordering (IR) for data hiding, steganography and watermarking.
Christian Collberg and Clark Thomborson.
Software watermarking: Models and dynamic embedding.
ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, POPL '99, pages 311-324, San Antonio, TX, USA, January 1999.
Cullen Linn and Saumya Debray.
Obfuscation of executable code to improve resistance to static
Proceedings of the 10th. ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, CCS '03}, Washington, DC, USA, October 2003.
Julien~P. Stern, Gael Hachez, Francois Koeune, and Jean-Jacques
Robust object watermarking: Application to code.
In Andreas Pfitzmann, editor, Proceedings of the 3rd Information Hiding Workshop '99, volume 1768 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 368-378, Dresden, Germany, September 1999. Springer.
Ramarathnam Venkatesan, Vijay Vazirani, and Saurabh Sinha.
A graph theoretic approach for software watermarking.
Proceedings of the 4th Information Hiding Workshop '01, Portland, OR, USA, April 2001.
Slides of the presentation are available in Acrobat (.pdf) format.